I. BSTP CONSTRUCTION HISTORY.
1.1. The design and construction of Block 1 of BSA (1948-1966)
Reasons to develop a municipal sewage treatment plant, its design and construction start in Bortnychi
It started in 1932-1935. The specialists began considering the issues of modernizing and expanding the existing sewer system. And in 1935 a modernization concept was approved by authorities. The process was artificial biological treatment and the plant was planned on the right bank of the Dnipro river in the vicinity of a hill called Lysa Hora. The Kyiv municipal sewer system reconstruction procedure was developed and approved by the research organization “Dniprovod”. The design development process was headed by Chief Engineer O.P. Piartli.
The purpose was to achieve the complete biological treatment of sewage in aeration tanks filled with activated sludge.
On the eve of World War II (in 1940), a new general plan of the Kyiv sewer system was developed by research organization “Vodokanaltrest” as ordered by Kyiv “Kanaltrest”. It was the fully separated system for the treatment of sewage arriving from the right bank at the treatment facilities located in an area called Telychka.
While sewage from the left bank part of the city was meant to be directed to the Main trunk sewer with treatment in special filtration fields near the area Chervonyi Khutir.
However, only when the war was over, the proper installation of sewage treatment facilities became possible in Kyiv.
On 13 August 1948, the Cabinet of Ministers of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic issued Resolution No. 1691, aiming to stop sewage pollution of the river Dnipro. Treated affluent was meant to be used for the irrigation of poor soils of collective farms located within Kyiv region. Thus the Ministry of Communal Services of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Kyiv branch of the research organization “Vodokanalproekt” were selected to develop the terms of reference for directing sewage from Kyiv and into treatment facilities. The terms of reference mentioned a range of primary and preliminary facilities that was approved by the Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic on 18 October 1955.
Further designing of the Bortnychi Sewage Treatment Plant was done by the research organization “Kyivproekt,” which developed the engineering design. However, the State Sanitary Inspection of Ukraine did not approve the project, demanding the design of the full biological treatment plant instead. In 1959 the specialists further developed this design adding the line of full biological treatment of sewage. Later, based on the final variant of the project, the organization “Ukrhipprovodhosp” developed the design of the Bortnychi irrigation system with watering agriculture fields with biologically treated effluent in mind. The Biological Treatment Project was approved by the Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1961.
As general contractors for this construction project were selected the organizations “Kyivmiskbud” and “Kyivmetrobud”. The Founder was the Directorate for Construction of Bortnychi Sewage Treatment Plant who reported to the Industrial Department of the Water Supply and Sewage Office in Kyiv Municipal Executive Council (Project Implementation Unit (PIU).
They started building the Bortnychi Sewage Treatment Plant in 1958, and major sewage treatment facilities in 1961.
In 1963, 4 underwater pipelines were constructed which crossed the Dnipro river with the gravity sewer installed (pipeline No. 1 – 995.26 m, pipeline No. 2 – 965.79 m, pipeline No. 3 – 966.73 m, pipeline No. 4 – 990.21 m).
Construction and commissioning of sewage treatment facilities of Block 1 (Stage I)
Already in the early 1964, it was decided to provide water supply to sprinkler units of the irrigation system with the volume of 1.5 m3/s.
However, at the point the major facilities were not ready yet to receive and treat sewage, thus water for irrigation was taken from the Dnipro river.
From early May to late August 1964, the following algorithm was used. On the left bank of the Dnipro river near underwater pipelines, specialists installed a floating pumping facility equipped with two major pumps having the capacity of 3,000 m3/year each. The pumps directed water from the river and into a raiser (5 meters high, 200 mm diameter) which was installed in the top run of the pipelines. Thus the water flowed from the river via the Left-Bank Sewer and into the newly built First Rise Pumping Station. After that the water came to the grit removal facility, then under gravity, via primary settling tanks and a bypass channel, into an affluent channel and into an influent channel of the irrigation pumping facility. It was good to have river water, as the hydraulic testing of facilities became possible on the spot.
May 1964 saw the commissioning of a power station 110/35/6 kV for the operation by “Kyivenergo.” In November 1964 a grit removal facility and 4 primary settling tanks in combination with a raw sludge pumping facility were put in operation. Inside the First Rise Pumping Station, there was the installation of screening section equipment and three pumps. On 29 November 1964 sewage from the left bank area of Kyiv started coming to the primary and preliminary treatment facilities, capacity of 80-90 thousand m3a day. The clarified water flew into the affluent channel via the bypass channel, and finally into the river Yakushivka.
Aeration tank No.1 was first filled with water on 28 December 1964. For aeration were installed two blowers. In early January 1965 two secondary settling tanks and sludge pump facility No.2 for aeration tanks were put in operation. The middle of March saw the connection of the main affluent channel.
All above steps constituted the commissioning Phase I of Stage 1 sewage treatment facilities.
Construction and commissioning of sewage treatment facilities of Block 1 (Phase II)
In early July 1965 the Right Bank Sewer and an underwater pipeline across the Dnipro river was put in operation. Sewage from the right bank part of Kyiv was discharged into the Dnipro river via emergency discharge valves of the lower chamber of the pipelines.
In late July 1965 all sewage from Kyiv started arriving at the treatment facilities, capacity of 420-450 thousand m3a day.
However 8 primary settling tanks, 3 aeration tanks and 8 secondary settling tanks happened to be overloaded. Thus it was decided that Bortnychi Sewage Treatment Plant should treat only sewage from the right bank part of Kyiv, capacity of 300-320 thousand m3a day, while sewage from the left part of Kyiv was directed into the affluent channel untreated.
In late August 1965 a cascade of sludge fields was created and works at sludge pump facility No.3 completed. So it became possible to pump digested sludge to sludge fields.
Therefore, from late August 1965, the Bortnychi Biological Treatment System got in operation, fully providing the complete cycle of sewage biological treatment, capacity of 300 thousand m3a day, including the sludge processing in digestion tanks and in sludge fields.
Pre-commissioning works were carried out during two weeks.
Reflecting the fact of commissioning of Stage 1 of Kyiv sewage treatment facilities, capacity of 288 thousand m3a day, the Acceptance Certificate was signed by the State Acceptance Commission on 22 December 1965. While the final Acceptance Certificate on commissioning of Stage 1 of Kyiv sewage treatment facilities, capacity of 568.9 thousand m3a day, was signed by the State Acceptance Commission on 24 December 1966.
1.2. The design and construction of Block 2 of Bortnychi Sewage Treatment Plant (1971-1978)
From 1970 Bortnychi Biological Treatment Plant began being operated in overloaded conditions what was caused by the increase of sewage influent. Thus, a decision was taken in 1970 as to the construction of Stage 2 of sewage treatment facilities, capacity of 600 thousand m3/day, meant for the complete biological treatment in aeration tanks. Stage 2 affluent was intended to flow into the Dnipro river because the further development of irrigated agriculture did not assume the use of biologically treated sewage. The total design capacity of BSTP increased and reached 1.2 million m3a day.
And in 1971 there was the commencement of works for the construction of Block 2. First, soil was filled hydraulically for the construction site. Primary settling tanks, digested sludge pump facility, sludge pipelines, sludge fields No.2 and new administration building were constructed afterwards. In 1973-1974 sludge fields No.2 (area of 76.0 ha) were put in operation. There was also commissioning of a pump facility with operators’ rooms, grit sites, some of primary settling tanks and sludge pump facility No.3 with two reservoirs.
Besides, two additional primary settling tanks and a raw sludge pump facility were built within Block 1 in 1975. Finally, the designed capacity of Block 1, 600 thousand m3/day, was achieved.
In order to achieve the better initial mixing of the increased volume of treated affluent with water of the desilting strip of the Kyiv water body, a special scattering discharge point was built. It consisted of 9 pipes, diam. 1,400 mm, expanding into the water body at different distances (from 40 to 110 m). Treated affluent is directed to the intake chamber of Bortnychi-Vyshenki pumping station, part of structures for protecting the area against flooding with water of Kaniv Hydroelectric Power Plant.
According to the Resolution of the Executive Committee of Kyiv Municipal Council of Deputies No. 729 of 20 May 1974, Bortnychi Biological Treatment Station was renamed as BORTNYCHI SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (Order No. 69, Industrial Department of Water-Supply and Sewage Office, Kyiv, No. 69 of 03 June 1974).
And according to the Resolution of the Executive Committee of Kyiv Municipal Council of Deputies No. 1378 of 31 December 1975, Bortnychi Sewage Treatment Plant got on its balance the facilities of Block 2, design capacity of 300 thousand m3/day. The facilities were put in operation in June 1976.
In 1976-1977 the municipality finished constructing biological treatment facilities, making the capacity of the Block as designed: primary and secondary settling tanks, sludge thickeners, aeration tanks, pump and blower facilities. At the same time, specialists completed the construction and commissioning of the 2nd group of digestion tanks (No. 5 - 8), two raw sludge reservoirs and thickened activated sludge tanks, capacity of 600 m3each and sludge pumping facility No. 4. Boiler facility, garage and power supply facilities were put in operation.
In order to increase the capacity of facilities pumping sewage for treatment, the Right Bank Pumping Station was built with underwater pressure pipelines, diam. 1,400 mm across the Dnipro river. Commissioning took place in 1976.
Proving commissioning of Block 2 facilities, design capacity of 600 thousand m3/day, the Acceptance Certificate was signed by the State Acceptance Commission on 29 December 1977.
1978 saw the completion of all works concerning the commissioning of Block 2 facilities that is the completion of the 3rd group of primary settling tanks, one aeration tank, and 4 secondary settling tanks. Specialists developed the territory, installed cables, paved driveways and did landscaping.
On 28 December 1978, the State Acceptance Commission signed the Acceptance Certificate, approving the commissioning of Component III of facilities. With commissioning of this Component, Block 2 was completed. Its capacity was 600 thousand m3a day.
Construction and commissioning of sewage treatment facilities of Block 3 (1984-1995)
With growing per-capita water consumption, a need of the increased water supply to the city arose. The resulting increased capacity of water supply facilities dictated the improvement in sewage treatment facilities. Thus the design of Stage III of sewage treatment facilities of the city assumed two steps: The construction of Stage III (Novo-Bortnytska station of aeration) for the complete biological treatment in aeration tanks with the capacity of 600 thousand m3/day and the construction of facilities for tertiary treatment of biologically treated affluent with the capacity of 1,800 thousand m3/day – that is the total volume of municipal sewage, which was planned to flow to Bortnychi and Novo-Bortnytska stations of aeration.
At the time the agriculture had already stopped using biologically treated affluent for irrigation. Thus, it was planned to discharge all Kyiv treated sewage into the Dnipro river.
However, the project for the construction of tertiary treatment facilities was not implemented.
The construction of Stage III for increasing the capacity of sewage treatment facilities started in 1984. The project assumed not just a range of sewage treatment facilities but also solving the sludge treatment issue by constructing aerobic stabilizers, sludge thickeners and pilot sludge fields.
The accident in the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant dictated some extra measures. Thus together with facilities of Block 3, in August-October 1986, new sludge fields No. 3 were built in order to receive polluted sludge. Embankments and bottom of these sludge areas were covered with black plastic sheeting with 0.2 m soil added to exclude drainage of sludge water.
The commissioning of Component 1 of Novo-Bortnytska station of aeration took place on 29 December 1987.. It consisted of the screen section, aerated grit removal facilities, 4 secondary settling tanks, 2 aeration tanks with a pump facility, 4 secondary settling tanks and a blower building, capacity of 200 thousand m3/day.
In 1988 the facilities of the aerobic sludge stabilization section were put in operation.
All construction works for the facilities of Block 3 were completed in 1989-1992.
On 28 December 1994"Pozniaky" sewage pumping station was commissioned, which was needed to direct sewage from new municipal residential areas to the facilities of Blocks 2 and 3.
And on 25 December 1995 the final Acceptance Certificate was signed for commissioning completed sewage treatment facilities of Component III of Novo-Bortnytska Station of Aeration. The total design capacity of this Block was 600 thousand m3/day. The total daily capacity of all blocks of the plant reached 1.8 mln m3of the total amount of sewage.